Pledge of Allegiance
History of the Pledge of Allegiance
Since 1892, which marks the 400th anniversary of the discovery
America's by Columbus, the Pledge of Allegiance is recited in public
schools all over the nation.
The text was published in 1892 by an editor of the name
Francis Bellamy, who wrote for Boston's 'The Youth's Companion'
The original text changed only two times over the years: in
1923 participants of the National Flag Conference in Washington
D.C. decided to substitute "my flag" by "the Flag of
the United States of America". In 1954 president Eisenhower
ordered to add the words "under
Although Congress recognized the Pledge officially in 1942,
the Supreme Court raised up an objection and ruled in 1943 that
the morning recitation in schools is contradictory to the first
amendment of the Bill of Rights: the freedom of speech.
Today the Pledge of Allegiance is recited during formal
protocols, social related events and also e.g. at sport events.
Formal protocols means not only events on the federal government
level but also smallest meetings on community level.
During the conduction of the ceremony it is differentiated
between civilians and military personal: the latter ones, when in
uniform, do not recite the text, they are standing at attention,
facing the flag rendering the military salute. Military personal not
in uniform may recite the text, too, as civilians do.
The ceremony is stipulated in the United States Code, Title 4,
Ch. 1, Section 4 (The Flag):
The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag,
"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of
America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under
God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
should be rendered by standing at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the
heart. When not in uniform men should remove their headdress with their right hand and
hold it at the left shoulder, the
hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should
remain silent, face the flag, and render the military